Dunedin

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For Travel information about Dunedin see Visiting Dunedin


Dunedin
Ōtepoti

Coordinates: 45°52′0″S, 170°30′0″E
Urban Area Population 114,700 (2005 estimate)
Extent Mosgiel to Port Chalmers
Territorial
Authority
Name Dunedin City
Population 118,683[1]
Land area 3314.8km²
Extent urban area, and to
Middlemarch,
Waikouaiti and the
Taieri River
Regional
Council
Name Otago Regional Council

Dunedin (Ōtepoti in Maori) is the second-largest city in the South Island of New Zealand, and the principal city of the region of Otago. It is New Zealand's fifth largest city in terms of population, it is the hub of the fifth-largest urban area and the largest in size of council boundary areas. For historical and cultural reasons, Dunedin is considered one of the country's four main centres.

The city stands on the hills and valleys surrounding the head of Otago Harbour. The harbour and hills are the remnants of an extinct volcano. It is the home of the University of Otago.

Contents

[edit] History

Main article: History of Dunedin

Modern archaeology favours a date round 1100 AD for the first human (Māori) occupation of New Zealand with population concentrated along the south east coast. A camp site at Kaikai's Beach, near Otago Heads, has been dated from about that time. There are numerous Archaic (moa hunter) sites in what is now Dunedin, several of them large and permanently occupied, particularly in the fourteenth century. Population contracted but expanded again with the evolution of the Classic culture which saw the building of several pa, fortified settlements, notably Pukekura at (Taiaroa Head), about 1650. There was a settlement in what is now central Dunedin (Ōtepoti) occupied as late as about 1785 but abandoned by 1826.

Maori tradition tells first of people called Kahui Tipua living in the area, then Te Rapuwai, semi-legendary but considered to be historical. The next arrivals were Waitaha followed by Kati Mamoe late in the sixteenth century and then Kai Tahu (Ngai Tahu in modern standard Māori) who arrived in the mid seventeenth century. These migration waves have often been represented as 'invasions' in European accounts but modern scholarship has cast doubt on that. They were probably migrations like those of the European which incidentally resulted in bloodshed.

The sealer John Boultbee recorded in the 1820s that the 'Kaika Otargo' (settlements around and near Otago Harbour) were the oldest and largest in the south.

Captain James Cook stood off what is now the coast of Dunedin between February 25 and March 5 1770, naming Cape Saunders on the Otago Peninsula and Saddle Hill. He reported penguins and seals in the vicinity, which led sealers to visit from the beginning of the 19th century. The early years of sealing saw a feud between sealers and local Maori, from 1810-1823, sparked by an incident on Otago Harbour, but William Tucker became the first European to settle in the area in 1815. Permanent European occupation dates from 1831 when the Weller brothers founded their whaling station at Otago, modern Otakou on the Otago Harbour. Epidemics reduced the Maori population. By the late 1830s the harbour was an international whaling port. Johnny Jones established a farming settlement and a mission station, the South Island's first, at Waikouaiti in 1840.

The Lay Association of the Free Church of Scotland founded Dunedin at the head of Otago Harbour in 1848 as the principal town of its Scottish settlement. The name comes from Dùn Èideann, the Scottish Gaelic name for Edinburgh, the Scottish capital. Charles Kettle the city's surveyor, instructed to emulate the characteristics of Edinburgh, produced a striking, 'Romantic' design. The result was both grand and quirky streets as the builders struggled and sometimes failed to construct his bold vision across the challenging landscape. Captain William Cargill, a veteran of the war against Napoleon, was the secular leader. The Reverend Thomas Burns, a nephew of the poet Robert Burns, was the spiritual guide.

In 1852, Dunedin became the capital of the Otago Province, the whole of New Zealand from the Waitaki south. In 1861 the discovery of gold at Gabriel's Gully, to the southwest, led to a rapid influx of population and saw Dunedin become New Zealand's first city by growth of population in 1865. The new arrivals included many Irish, but also Italians, French, Germans, Jews and Chinese.

Dunedin Railway Station, built in 1906.
360° Panorama: Railway Station from inside.

Dunedin and the region industrialised and consolidated, and the Main South Line connected the city with Christchurch in 1878 and Invercargill in 1879. The University of Otago, the oldest university in New Zealand, was founded in Dunedin in 1869. Otago Girls' High School (1871) is said to be the oldest state secondary school for girls in the Southern Hemisphere. Between 1881 and 1957, Dunedin was home to cable trams, being both one of the first and last such systems in the world. Early in the 1880s the inauguration of the frozen meat industry, with the first shipment leaving from Port Chalmers, saw the beginning of a later great national industry.

After ten years of gold rushes the economy slowed but Julius Vogel's immigration and development scheme brought thousands more especially to Dunedin and Otago before recession set in again in the 1880s. In these first times of prosperity many institutions and businesses were established, New Zealand's first daily newspaper, art school, medical school and public art gallery Dunedin Public Art Gallery among them. There was also a remarkable architectural flowering producing many substantial and ornamental buildings. R.A. Lawson's First Church of Otago and Knox Church are notable examples, as are buildings by Maxwell Bury and F.W. Petre. The other visual arts also flourished under the leadership of W.M. Hodgkins. The city's landscape and burgeoning townscape were vividly portrayed by George O'Brien 1821-1888. From the mid 1890s the economy revived. Institutions such as the Otago Settlers Museum and the Hocken Collections – the first of their kind in New Zealand – were founded. More notable buildings such as the Railway Station and Olveston were erected. New energy in the visual arts represented by G.P. Nerli culminated in the career of Frances Hodgkins.

By 1900, Dunedin was no longer the country's biggest city. Influence and activity moved north to the other centres ("the drift north"), a trend which continued for much of the following century. Despite this, the university continued to expand, and a student quarter became established. At the same time people started to notice Dunedin's mellowing, the ageing of its grand old buildings, with writers like E.H. McCormick pointing out its atmospheric charm. In the 1930s and early 1940s a new generation of artists such as M.T. (Toss) Woollaston, Doris Lusk, Anne Hamblett, Colin McCahon and Patrick Hayman once again represented the best of the country's talent. The Second World War saw the dispersal of these painters, but not before McCahon had met a very youthful poet, James K. Baxter, in a central city studio.

[edit] Modern Dunedin

The Dunedin Botanic Garden

After World War II, prosperity and population growth revived, although Dunedin trailed as the fourth 'main centre'. A generation reacting against Victorianism started demolishing its buildings, and many were lost, notably the Stock Exchange in 1969. Although the university continued to expand, the city's population growth slowed and then contracted, notably from 1976 to 1981. This was, however, a culturally vibrant time with the university's new privately endowed arts fellowships, bringing such luminaries as James K Baxter, Ralph Hotere, Janet Frame, and Hone Tuwhare to the city.

During the 1980s the city's popular music scene blossomed, with many acts, such as The Chills, The Clean, The Verlaines, and Straitjacket Fits, gaining national and international recognition. The term "The Dunedin Sound" was coined to describe the 1960s-influenced guitar-led music which came out of the city at this time. These bands were at the forefront of a much larger and diverse music scene which was the envy of far larger cities in New Zealand. The music scene continues today, ranging from rock bands to reggae, with a CD released annually to allow people to "sample the sounds". Popular venues for Dunedin music are those such as Bath St Nightclub, Refuel (Found on the University of Otago campus), The Arc Cafe, Sammy's Nightclub, and so on.

By 1990, population decline had steadied and Dunedin had re-invented itself as a 'heritage city' with its main streets refurbished in Victorian style, and R.A. Lawson's Municipal Chambers in the Octagon handsomely restored. It was also recognised as a centre of excellence in tertiary education and research. The university and polytechnic's growth accelerated. North Dunedin became New Zealand's largest and most exuberant residential campus. The city has continued to refurbish itself, embarking on major developments and redevelopments of the art gallery, railway station, and Otago Settlers Museum.

Dunedin has flourishing niche industries including engineering, software engineering, bio-technology and fashion. Port Chalmers on Otago Harbour provides Dunedin with deep-water port facilities. The port is served by the Port Chalmers Branch, a branch line railway that diverges from the Main South Line that ran from Christchurch via Dunedin to Invercargill.

The cityscape glitters with gems of Victorian and Edwardian architecture - the legacy of the city's gold-rush affluence - many including First Church and Larnach Castle designed by one of New Zealand's most eminent architects R A Lawson. Other prominent buildings include Olveston and the magnificent Dunedin Railway Station. Other not-to-be missed attractions include Baldwin Street, the world's steepest street; the famous Captain Cook Tavern; and the local Speight's brewery. Tourists and students alike appreciate tours of the Cadbury chocolate factory.

Dunedin is also notable now as centre for ecotourism. Uniquely, the world's only mainland Royal Albatross colony and several penguin and seal colonies lie within the city boundaries on Otago Peninsula. To the south, on the western side of Lake Waihola, lie the Sinclair Wetlands.

The thriving tertiary student population has led to a vibrant youth culture (so named 'Scarfies'), consisting of the before mentioned music scene, and more recently a burgeoning boutique fashion industry. A very strong visual arts community also lives in Dunedin and its environs, notably in Port Chalmers and the other settlements which dot the coast of the Otago Harbour, and also in communities such as Waitati.

St Clair Beach, Dunedin.

Sport is catered for in Dunedin by the floodlit rugby and cricket venue of Carisbrook, the New Caledonian Ground soccer and athletics stadium near the University at Logan Park, the large Edgar Centre indoor sports centre, and numerous golf courses and parks. There are also Forbury Park horseracing circuit in the south of the city and several others within a few kilometres. St Clair Beach is a well-known surfing venue.

[edit] Transport in Dunedin

See also: Public transport in Dunedin

Dunedin features the world's most southern motorway, the ten-kilometre section of State Highway One (SH1) from the centre of the city towards the southern suburb of Mosgiel. Dunedin is the northeastern terminus of the Southern Scenic Route tourist highway to The Catlins, Invercargill and Fiordland.

Although Dunedin's railway station, once the nation's busiest, is no longer served by regular commercial passenger trains, it is used by local tourist services. The most prominent of these is the Taieri Gorge Limited, a popular and famous train operated daily by the Taieri Gorge Railway along the former Otago Central Railway through the scenic Taieri Gorge. Taieri Gorge Railway also operates to Palmerston once weekly. The station is also sometimes visited by excursions organised by other heritage railway societies, and by trains chartered by cruise ships docking at Port Chalmers.

[edit] Dunedin International Airport

Dunedin International Airport is located southwest of the city on the Taieri Plains at Momona. It is primarily a domestic terminal, with regular flights to and from Auckland, Christchurch, Wellington, Rotorua, Palmerston North, and seasonal flights to and from Queenstown, Wanaka, and Fiordland, but it also has regular international flights arriving from and departing to Sydney, Brisbane, Melbourne, and Coolangatta.

Glenorchy Air provides flights between Dunedin and Queenstown or Glenorchy.

[edit] Media in Dunedin

Local media in Dunedin include the daily newspaper The Otago Daily Times, several local weekly and bi-weekly community newspapers, local radio stations (including the University's station, Radio One), and Channel 9 a local television station.

[edit] Geography

Dunedin (grey area to lower left) sits close to the isthmus of the Otago Peninsula, at the end of Otago Harbour.

Dunedin City has a land area of 3314.8 km², slightly larger than the American state of Rhode Island or the English county of Cambridgeshire, and a little smaller than Cornwall. It is the largest city in land area in New Zealand. The Dunedin City Council boundaries since 1989 have extended to Middlemarch in the west, Waikouaiti in the north, the Pacific Ocean in the east and south-east, and the Waipori/Taieri River and the township of Henley in the south-west. It is now the fourth-largest city in the world by land area.

Dunedin is also home to Baldwin Street, which, according to the Guinness Book of Records, is the steepest street in the world. Its gradient is 1 in 2.9. The long since abandoned Maryhill Cablecar route had a similar gradient close to its Mornington depot. The Dunedin skyline is dominated by a ring of (traditionally seven) hills which form the remnants of a volcanic crater. Notable among them are Mount Cargill (700 m), Flagstaff (680 m), Saddle Hill (480 m), Signal Hill (390 m), and Harbour Cone (320 m).

The heart of the city lies on the relatively flat land to the west of the head of the Otago Harbour. Here is The Octagon - once a swamp, it was drained in the late nineteenth century to create a city centre. The initial settlement of the city took place to the north of this swamp and further south on the other side of Bell Hill, a large outcrop which had to be excavated in order to provide easy access between the two parts of the settlement. The central city stretches away from this point in a largely northeast-southwest direction, with the main streets of George Street and Princes Street meeting at The Octagon. Here they are joined by Stuart Street, which runs orthogonal to them, from the Dunedin Railway Station in the southeast, and steeply up to the suburb of Roslyn in the northwest. Many of the older, more established buildings in the city are located towards the northern end of this central area on the floodplains of the Water of Leith, and on the inner ring of lower hills which surround the central city (most of these hills, such as Maori Hill, Pine Hill, and Maryhill, rise to some 200 metres above the plain).

Beyond the inner range of hills lie Dunedin's outer suburbs, notably to the northwest, beyond Roslyn. This direction contains Taieri Road and Three Mile Hill, which between them formed the original road route to the Taieri Plains. The modern State Highway 1 follows a different route, passing through Caversham in the west and out past Saddle Hill. Lying between Saddle Hill and Caversham are the outer suburbs of Green Island and Abbotsford. Between Green Island and Roslyn lies the steep-sided valley of the Kaikorai Stream, which is today a residential and light industrial area. Suburban settlements – mostly regarded as separate townships – also lie along both edges of the Otago Harbour. Notable among these are Portobello and Macandrew Bay, on the Otago Peninsula coast, and Port Chalmers on the opposite side of the harbour. Port Chalmers provides Dunedin's main deep-water port, including the city's container port.

The hinterland within Dunedin city encompasses a variety of different landforms. To the southwest lie the Taieri Plains, the broad, fertile lowland floodplains of the Taieri River and its major tributary the Waipori. These are moderately heavily settled, and contain the towns of Mosgiel, East Taieri, and Allanton. They are separated from the coast by a range of low hills rising to some 300 m. Inland from the Taieri Plain is rough hill country. Close to the plain, much of this is forested, notably around Berwick and Lake Mahinerangi, and also around the Silverpeaks Range which lies northwest of the Dunedin urban area. Beyond this, the land becomes drier and opens out into grass and tussock-covered land. A high, broad valley, the Strath-Taieri lies in Dunedin's far northwest, containing the town of Middlemarch, one of the area's few concentrations of population.

To the north of the city's urban area is undulating hill country containing several small, mainly coastal, settlements, including Waitati, Warrington, Seacliff and Waikouaiti. State Highway 1 winds steeply through a series of hills here, notably the Kilmog. These hills can be considered a coastal extension of the Silverpeaks Range.

To the east, Dunedin City includes the entirety of the Otago Peninsula, a long finger of land that formed the southeastern rim of the Dunedin Volcano. The peninsula is lightly settled, almost entirely along the harbour coast, and much of it is maintained as a natural habitat by the Otago Peninsula Trust. The peninsula contains several fine beaches, and is home to a considerable number of rare species, such as penguins, seals, and shags. Most importantly, it contains the world's only mainland breeding colony of Royal Albatross, at Taiaroa Head on the peninsula's northeastern point.

[edit] Climate

The climate of Dunedin in general is temperate, however the city is recognised as having a large number of microclimates and the weather conditions often vary between suburbs mostly due to the city's topographical layout. It is also greatly modified by its proximity to the ocean. This leads to warm summers and cool winters. Winter can be frosty, but significant snowfall is uncommon (perhaps every two or three years), except in the inland hill suburbs such as Halfway Bush and Wakari, which tend to receive a few days of snowfall each year. Spring can feature "four seasons in a day" weather, but from November to April it is generally settled and mild. Temperatures during summer can top 30°C, but temperatures in the high 30s are rare.

Dunedin has relatively low rainfall in comparison to many of New Zealand's cities, with only some 750 mm recorded per year. It has a somewhat unwarranted reputation for damp weather, probably due to its rainfall occurring in drizzle over a larger number of days, whereas northern centres such as Auckland and Wellington receive more rain overall through heavy downpours on relatively fewer days. Dunedin is one of the cloudiest centres in the country, however recording approximately 1700 hours of bright sunshine per annum. Prevailing winds are from the south (cool, damp), and from the northwest (hot and dry in summer, cold and dry in winter). The circle of hills surrounding the inner city shelters the inner city from much of Otago's prevailing weather, often resulting in the main urban area having completely different weather conditions to the rest of Otago.

Inland, beyond the heart of the city, the climate is continental: winters are cold and dry, summers hot and dry. Thick freezing ground fogs are common in winter in the upper reaches of the Taieri River's course around Middlemarch, and in summer the temperature frequently reaches into the high 30s celsius.

[edit] List of Dunedin suburbs

[edit] Inner suburbs

(clockwise from the city centre, starting at due north)
Woodhaugh; Glenleith; Ross Creek; Dalmore; Pine Hill; Mt Cargill; Normanby; Mt Mera; North East Valley; Opoho; Dunedin North; Ravensbourne; Highcliff; Shiel Hill; Waverley; Vauxhall; Ocean Grove (Tomahawk); Tainui; Andersons Bay; Musselburgh; South Dunedin; St Kilda; St Clair; Corstorphine; Kew; Forbury; Caversham; Concord; Maryhill; Mornington; Kaikorai Valley; Belleknowes; Roslyn; Kaikorai; Wakari; Maori Hill; Anderson's Bay; Halfway Bush; Fernhill; Kenmure.

[edit] Outer suburbs

(clockwise from the city centre, starting at due north)
Burkes; St. Leonards; Broad Bay; Company Bay; Macandrew Bay; Burnside; Green Island; Waldronville; Saddle Hill; Sunny Vale; Fairfield; Abbotsford; Bradford; Glenross; Brockville; Halfway Bush; Helensburgh.

[edit] Towns within Dunedin City limits

(clockwise from the city centre, starting at due north)
Waitati; Waikouaiti; Karitane; Seacliff; Warrington; Purakanui; Long Beach; Aramoana; Deborah Bay; Carey's Bay; Port Chalmers; Sawyers Bay; Roseneath; Otakou; Portobello; Brighton; Taieri Mouth; Henley; Allanton; East Taieri; Momona; Outram; Mosgiel; West Taieri; Waipori; Middlemarch; Hyde.

Technically, since local council reorganisation in the late 1980s, these are suburbs, but it is rare for Dunedinites to describe these places as suburbs. They are usually regarded locally as towns or townships, and none has the usual qualities associated with suburbs. All are separated by a considerable distance of open countryside from the central Dunedin urban area.

[edit] Panoramas

180° view of Dunedin shot from the hills on the west. Mount Cargill is at the extreme left of picture, and the Otago Peninsula is beyond the harbour to the centre
180° view of Dunedin shot from the hills on the west. Mount Cargill is at the extreme left of picture, and the Otago Peninsula is beyond the harbour to the centre
A panorama of from just east of the summit of Mount Cargill. The harbour runs from its entrance near the centre to the city centre on the right, the peninsula beyond. The base of a television mast is at the extreme left and right edges
A panorama of from just east of the summit of Mount Cargill. The harbour runs from its entrance near the centre to the city centre on the right, the peninsula beyond. The base of a television mast is at the extreme left and right edges
The view from the summit of Mount Cargill. The base of a television mast can be seen on the left, with the harbour and the peninsula beyond. The city centre is in the middle
The view from the summit of Mount Cargill. The base of a television mast can be seen on the left, with the harbour and the peninsula beyond. The city centre is in the middle
The view from the summit of Flagstaff Hill. The city centre is on the right, and Mosgiel on the left. Mount Cargill is slightly right of centre
The view from the summit of Flagstaff Hill. The city centre is on the right, and Mosgiel on the left. Mount Cargill is slightly right of centre

[edit] Noted inhabitants

[edit] The arts

[edit] Politics and business

  • A large proportion of the country's leading companies in and beyond the twentieth century originated in Dunedin. A selection of relevant company or brand names includes Arthur Barnett, Donaghy, Fletcher, Fulton Hogan, Hallenstein, Methven, Mosgiel, NZI, Ravensdown, Wests, Whitcoulls, and Wrightson.
  • The Bell Tea Company was founded here in 1898 and still has one of its factories in Hope Street.
  • Postage stamps for New Zealand and many other major Southern Hemisphere countries, such as South Africa, Zimbabwe, Western Samoa and Tonga, are printed in Dunedin by Southern Colour Print Ltd.
  • Deputy Prime Minister (since 1999) Michael Cullen was Member of Parliament for the Dunedin electorate of St Kilda from 1981 until 1999.

[edit] Science

[edit] Sport

[edit] Military

  • Sir Keith Park, World War I air ace, later Air Marshal in the defence of London during World War II.
  • Duncan Boyes, English recipient of the Victoria Cross in 1864 in Japan, was buried in Dunedin in 1869.

[edit] Events

[edit] Annual events

[edit] Past events

[edit] Prominent Dunedin buildings and landmarks

[edit] Museums, art galleries, and libraries

[edit] Churches

[edit] Places of education

[edit] Tertiary

[edit] Secondary

[edit] Twinning

Dunedin is twinned with several cities throughout the world. These include:

[edit] More information

[edit] External links

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[edit] Further reading

  • Bishop, G. & Hamel, A. (1993). From sea to silver peaks. Dunedin: John McIndoe. ISBN 0-86868-149-0.
  • Dann, C. & Peat, N. (1989). Dunedin, North and South Otago. Wellington, NZ: GP Books. ISBN 0-477-01438-0.
  • Herd, J. & Griffiths, G. J. (1980). Discovering Dunedin. Dunedin: John McIndoe. ISBN 0-86868-030-3.
  • Smallfield, J. & Heenan, B. (2006) Above the belt: A history of the suburb of Maori Hill. Dunedin: Maori Hill History Charitable Trust. ISBN 1-877139-98-X.

[edit] References

This article uses material from Wikipedia, "Dunedin"



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